Sunday, May 24, 2020

I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died - 842 Words

Mikalyn Hutchins Bozeman AP Prep English 9 30 October 2015 â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† by Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson was likely influenced by epitaphs on tombstones. She uses floral language like Frances Osgood, and did not write the way the general public thought women should write, like the way of Helen Hunt Jackson. It is possible that is the reason she did not publish her works (Petrino). In the poem ‘I heard a fly buzz when I died’, Emily Dickinson uses metaphors in order to say that everyone dies and it is not always the most desirable way to die. Emily Dickinson was part of the American Transcendentalist movement. The word â€Å"transcendental† means character, thought, or action, so it is no surprise the movement was called Transcendentalism. The transcendentalists often worked together, unlike poets from other movements (webexhibits.org). The transcendentalists, particularly the women, often wrote about death and many people wonder why (Noble). The poem â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† is about a person lying on their death bed after having a will written. The persona, the person telling the story as a narrator, has been distracted by a fly. Emily Dickinson used metaphors, foreshadowing, and personification in â€Å"I Heard a fly Buzz When I Died.† A metaphor is a comparison of two unlike things. An extended metaphor is a metaphor that extends through stanzas or even through the entire poem. The poem is an extended metaphor, comparing the random, ugly fly and anShow MoreRelatedI Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died Essay1330 Words   |  6 PagesEmily Dickinson s â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is an elegy written from the perspective of the speaker who is already dead and who is reflecting back on the last moments of her life and the moment of her death. The speaker tells the story of his/her own deathbed scene: describing the final experiences and sensations before the exact moment of death. The poem uses specific language, descriptive visual and aural imagery, and other poetic devices to convey the confusion and frustration that speakerRead MoreI Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died Essay1252 Words   |  6 Pa ges Emily Dickson â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is an elegy written from the perspective of the speaker who is already a dead person who is reflecting back on the last moments of her life and the moment of her death. The poem uses specific language, descriptive visual and aural imagery, and other poetic devices to convey confusion and frustration that speaker s experience as at the very end accepting that their life is coming to an end, a fly came into their notice and disturbed their final momentsRead MoreAnalysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died996 Words   |  4 PagesRomantic Era of poetry, where everything was romanticized: death, love, etc. Of her poems, â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died,† is the most difficult to acquire the meaning from, but also the darkest of all her poems. In the poem, Dickinson describes a scene of a person, on their death bed, surrounded by people. The mood is calm, and serene, but it is interrupted by a buzzing fly. As the poem progresses, the pesky fly is forgotten and Dickinson explains the doleful environment in the room. The poem goesRead MoreAnalysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1137 Words   |  5 PagesEmily Dickinson’s â€Å"I heard a Fly buzz - when I died† describes a death speaker looks back the moment of his or her death. Using the objects like the storm, the fly and the melancholy of the people around to express the mood of the speaker, Dickinson reveals that faces the death, the speaker is afraid at first, but finally, the speaker finds the calmness and peace inside herself or himself. Like â€Å"I heard a Fly buzz - when I died†, After Death also addresses a moment before death. Rossetti uses theRead MoreCritical Analysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1381 Words   |  6 PagesLater in he r life, Dickinson writes about death and the overwhelming presence of death. Her famous poem, I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died, talks about death and the decay of the body. According to Helen Vendler’s Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries, it gives an analysis of the I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died in line 7 of the poem the king will be coming and will reclaim what belongs to him and when he comes it will be witnessed by the bystanders in the room. The King is coming for the deceased andRead More An Annotation of Emily Dickinsons I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died1091 Words   |  5 PagesAn Annotation of Emily Dickinsons I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died Emily Dickinsons poem I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died is centralized on the events of death and is spoken through the voice of the dying person. The poem explores both the meaning of life and death through the speaker and the significant incidents at the time of near death that the speaker notices. Many of Dickinsons poems contain a theme of death that searches to find meaning and the ability to cope with the inevitable. ThisRead MoreEmily Dickinson s I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died846 Words   |  4 PagesElements of â€Å"I heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† In some instances within literature, writers surprise readers by incorporating ideas that the reader may or may not expect. Within Emily Dickinson’s poem â€Å"I heard a Fly Buzz When I Died†, readers are introduced to a ghostly speaker that discusses the scene of their deathbed. Readers are exposed to many surprises throughout various aspects of the poem. One aspect of the poem that surprises readers is the relationship between the speaker and the fly .The firstRead More Death in Dickinsons I heard a Fly Buzz When I died Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesDeath in Dickinsons I heard a fly buzz when I died Emily Dickinson’s poem â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is a reflection on what happens when one dies. In the poem, the speaker is waiting to die. It seems as though they are expecting something spectacular to happen at the moment of their death. This spectacular event they are expecting does not happen. I heard a fly buzz when I died By Emily Dickinson I heard a fly buzz when I died; The stillness round my form Was like the stillnessRead MoreIssues of Mortality in Emily Dickinson’s â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died595 Words   |  3 PagesDickinson’s â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died â€Å"symbolizes the death that Emily saw around her daily. Emily Dickinson wrote the poem around the time of the Civil war which was between the years 1861 through the years 1865.Emily Dickinson was socially awkward, and around the time of her early twenties completely secluded herself from the outside world. Despite the fact that her family had strong political traditions, Emily and her brother seemed uninterested in the war. Very much so that when her brotherRead MoreAn Analysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died and Jilting of Granny Weatherall1714 Words   |  7 PagesChrist then they will go to heaven, however, if a person fails to let go of their sins or does not live accept Christ then they will not find eternal life in heaven. Both â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† by Katherine Anne Porter and â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died† by Emily Dickinson depict characters who fail to find salvation after death because of their inability to see God in the physical form; the authors illustrate this using different literary elements including style, symbols and allusions

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Descriptive Essay Immigrants In America - 1884 Words

Immigrants in America I nervously start to fidget with the ring on my thumb as I watch the trees pass by from the window of the bus. My legs start to shake. My heart thumps loudly. So loud I’m afraid everyone can hear it. Today is the first day of school in America. America is beautiful. There’s so much to see. The beautiful mountains remind me of large palaces and towers. The warm colors shining on the lake from the sunset remind me of Begonia flowers we grew in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is loud, crowded and chaotic. The heat soars up to 100 degrees. But here in Vermont it’s cool, and quiet. I’ve never been to a place this quiet before. I like it, its peaceful here. I have been on this public bus with my dad for the past 20 minutes. I feel†¦show more content†¦The clean tiles sparkled like a diamond. I listened to the quick patter of my feet as I tried to keep up with my dad’s long strides. The white walls were filled with colorful art drawn by students. The hallway was empty. I saw students in classrooms as we walked by, which meant that class had already started. Eventually we arrived at a hallway with a sign at the top that read, â€Å"KINDERGARTEN† in big red letters. I’m not exactly sure what â€Å"Kindergarten† is, but we’ve never had that in Bangladesh. We finally arrived at a classroom where the teacher ushered for us to come inside. All the students were already in the classroom. The classroom consisted of a shiny mocha-colored desk on the right next to the door, filled with multiple papers and colorful pens. There was a large round blue rug in the corner. On the left was a play pen with a bunch of stuffed animals and toys. On the blue painted wall was a clean white board with different colored markers. There were multiple tables and chairs placed in the center of the room. My dad and I walked in as the whole class stared at us. My face turned red from all the attention. My dad and the teacher talked for a while until my dad turned around and kneeled in front of me. â€Å"I’m going to go now. Ask your teacher if you need any help. I’ll come pick you up after school ok? Don’t worry you’ll be fine.† I nodded. I’ve been to school in Bangladesh without my parents before. I’ll be fine. My dad walked out of the classroom andShow MoreRelated Presenting People in Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes, and Island Man579 Words   |  3 PagesPresenting People in Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes, and Island Man In this essay I will compare the ways in which the poets present people in â€Å"Two Scavengers in a truck, two beautiful people in a Mercedes† by Lawrence Ferlinghetti and â€Å"Island Man† by Grace Nichols. In this essay I will look at the shape, structure, poetic devices and language in both poems. Firstly I will examine what the two poems are about and the ways how both poets portray the peopleRead MoreRomantic Period of Literature in America Essay949 Words   |  4 Pagesabout the romantic movement. Themes of the romantic period include nature as a refuge, high imagination, and emotional intensity. All of these influences and themes culminate in many different forms of literature including poem, short story, and essay. A drastic shift from the Puritan and Quaker writings of the colonial period in American literature, the romantic movement was heavily influenced by a changing colonial world. The United States, closely following a revolutionary victory, began pushingRead MoreThe By Roger Bonair Agard And Gloria Anzaldua Essay1608 Words   |  7 Pagesfigure turning white, the way that many aspects of black culture were being adapted into white culture. Anzaldua also employs imagery to initiate the call for activism in her poem by illustrating the poor conditions and injustices that illegal immigrants face in the workplace. She introduces the abuse of power that employers hold when she writes that they work â€Å"from sunup to dark-15 hours sometimes†¦. Last Sunday they asked for a day off wanted to pray and rest, write letters to their familias..Read MoreThe Night Of A Salem State Writer s Series Event1135 Words   |  5 Pagescreeping just a few minutes past seven thirty the Writer’s Series event began. The Writer’s Series is run by the creative writing devision of the Salem State Arts program. It features published author of short stories, biography, poetry, and memoir and essays who come to the campus and preform free to reading. On Tuesday, I got the chance to attend my second Writer’s Series event. Featuring two poets Shari Caplan and Jarita Davis. The event began with Shari a Salem State alum who is a poet, freelance essayistRead MoreLiterary Analysis : Madison Eller 1474 Words   |  6 PagesMadison Eller Literary Analysis Essay March 6, 2016 When God created Adam, He saw that Adam needed a helpmeet. Humans need other humans to be happy. Unfortunately, sin often prevents people from living peacefully with each other. Prejudice can form a great rift between cultures, but if the two cultures understood each other, perhaps they would not be so prejudiced. The Chosen provides an inside look into the culture of the Jewish people in America. The persecution of the Jews brought millions ofRead MoreCulture Shock1485 Words   |  6 PagesDaniel Dhanaraj Descriptive Essay Culture Shock: An Integration in a New Country LIBS - 7001 February 21, 2011 The word ‘CULTURE’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘CULTURA’ which means to cultivate, to grow (Harper 2010). Anthropologist Edward B. Taylor, defines culture as â€Å"That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits.† (O’Neil 2006). This is the basic premise that beliefs, morals, and customs are all based on one’sRead MoreEssay on Insight on the Life and Works of Julia Alvarez1239 Words   |  5 Pagesgreats when talking about American literature. At her current age of 64, she has a numerous amount of writings and has won many awards. Personal life experiences from her youth to the Civil War to now have highly influenced her works (Heredia). Descriptive and influential, it is clear why Alvarez’s publications have influenced society the way they have today. Aged 64, Julia Alvarez is considered to be one of the greatest American writers of current times. Although she was born a native of New YorkRead MoreAnalysis Of Michael Walzer s On What Does It Mean For An American?2244 Words   |  9 PagesMichael Walzer’s essay on â€Å"What Does It Mean to Be an American?† raises many points about the American citizen. Specifically, he discusses â€Å"American† as an adjective (Walzer). â€Å"American† is often associated with American citizens; while this is true, the term can also be applied to Canadians and Mexicans (Walzer). American is such an ambiguous adjective that it is applicable to all countries and individuals that are part of the North American continent. Like Mr. Walzer states, American is not a trulyRead MoreHistorical Period Of The Bacon s Rebellion1662 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay we will closely examine the historical period of The Bacon’s Rebellion during the late 1600’s. We wil l pay closer attention to the cause and effects of Bacon’s Rebellion and the development of the white oppressed era. Before the Jim Crow era, the invention of the word Negro or the â€Å"White man†, or descriptive concepts to describe the blacks never seemed to existed. The colonial era consisted of a large mixed population of white and black bondsmen, who occupied the same economic issuesRead MoreMelting Pot6314 Words   |  26 PagesThe Metaphor of the Melting Pot Peggy Ruth Geren The melting pot has been used metaphorically to describe the dynamics of American social life. In addition to its descriptive uses, it has also been used to describe what should or should not take place in American social life. How did the term originate? How was it used originally? How is it used in contemporary society? What are some problems with the idea of the melting pot? How is public education connected to the idea of the melting pot?

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Unit 1 †a Managerial Approach to Marketing Free Essays

Kimberly Bell American Intercontinental University Unit 1 Individual Project MKT640 – A Managerial Approach to Marketing November 11, 2012 Abstract This paper reflects challenges brought on by starting up a new product, the effectiveness and efficiency of technology when marketing, and the battle of legal and ethical complication. Given are examples of different situation of each topic to demonstrate how each take place when starting a new product or service. The Marketing Scenario Introduction When bringing a new product or service together there are certain aspects to be considered for a successful product or outcome. We will write a custom essay sample on Unit 1 – a Managerial Approach to Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Those aspects may include target, sector, location, creating an effective marketing plans and advertisement strategies. There are also certain issues and challenges that may arise when bringing this new product or service into existence. Challenges in New Product Launches When bringing the new product or service into the market, without a plan in place for its targeted consumers, sector, location, sales and distribution tactics there will be several issues and challenges to face. According to Bloom, if all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed (Bloom, 1981). Challenges: Target Market and Sector. One challenge that is very distinct is target consumers and sectors. These two challenges differ where ever you go. When bringing that new product into existence you must do the research of the market for the sector and target market. Therefore, realizing the market sectors as well as the target consumer can determine the difference that one or the other may cause for a major challenge. For example, 1990’s McDonald’s launched a product called Deluxe line to target the older people and launched a tag line â€Å"Especially for the grown up taste† to market it but the launch failed disastrously due to wrong selection of target market. Challenges: Effective Marketing Plan Another challenging task is creating an effective marketing strategy. Creating a effective marketing strategy when initiating a new product is all about keeping the consumers needs in mind. The information presented in the marketing should so explanatory that it gives precise information to the consumer about the details of the product. To give misleading information will cause product failure. Therefore, the marketing will be unsuccessful. For example, Levi Strauss came out with a product called type1 jeans with some different features in 2002 but the marketing and advertisements wasn’t properly devised and erroneously lead consumers in turn leading to failure of the product launch (Bonander, 2010) Challenges: Competition Another challenge is competition, when initiating a new product in the market because the market is constantly changing, entrepreneurs are constantly taking risks (ThinkQuest : Library). For example, in 1985 Coca-Cola launch a new version of the drink with a tag line â€Å"The best just got, better†, but the taste and quality of the new drink was not accepted by the consumers as the strongest competitors PepsiCo took the advantage and maximized its sales (POM final). Technology and New Product Development Marketing efforts can be enhanced by the use of technology. While sales and profits are progressing, it can also help the organization succeed in its marketing campaign. For example most companies are using social media and networking site like LinkedIn to market their business and services. These social networking sites can make the new product campaign even more effective. Technology: Distribution Technology can also allow way for distribution of products or services. Therefore, through desk top advertising, e-marketing, and online marketing, technology has led the way to easy access marketing (Herbert and Grace, 2008). For example, a software Gold Fire Innovator, developed by Invention Machine has three modules and comprises of tools that make use of value engineering and well formulated problem-solving methodology (TRIZ) to provide assistance to the users concerning the problem definition. Its second module called researcher Facilitates Engineers in executing semantic searches related with the powerful databases for finding appropriate resolutions and concepts (Frey, 2006). Technology: Efficiency and Effectiveness Technology also helps in the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of product data. For example, in the banking industry several models based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) have been developed to help with the analyzing and processing of data (Yang, 2009). This process not only helps the organization to be more efficient but also more effective when servicing its customers. Technology: Display Technology can also help to display your new product in an arena for a big or small audience. For example, with a web page the new product can be advertised and sent over the internet, whereas it will be displayed in a database to allow a professional and systematic presentation to a large audience and sharing the of a wealth of information on a continued bases. Legal and Ethical Implications in New Product Development Many legal and ethical implications are faced when launching a new product or service. For example, packing, labeling regulations, disclosures, and standards. There are difference regulations set forth in different countries. There is a must that organizations understand the responsibilities regarding regulations are crucial to ensuring worldwide compliance and sustained economic edge (Akin-Ogundeji, 2010). Legal and ethical implications: Packing and labor There are various countries, which have specific regulations regarding packaging and labeling. There are also stipulates on how and where the labels should be placed on a products. For example, in the US the PDP, is that portion of the package label that is most likely to be seen by the consumer at the time of purchase (General Food Labeling Requirements). This PDP must appear on the front of the product. Legal and ethical implications: Advertisement or Display The media also creates controversy due to interpretations of the signage used to advertise. For example, baby food called Gerber, when it was launched in the France, it means stack or vomiting, which had very bad impression on the customers and led to the reduced sales of the product (Perlman, 2008). Legal and ethical implications: Media Advertisement and Display can really damages the launching of a new product because the audience can misused or misunderstand the given information. For example, when Coca-Cola entered china with the same name, the characters revealed the meaning as â€Å"Bite the wax tadpole† which was very unfortunate and misinterpreted by the people resulting in a controversy (Bite the Wax Tadpole). Conclusion It is to be concluded that from the above discussions that product development is extremely important. It also determines the organizations success and failures. Therefore, it can provide a great advantage to the company success. However, in technology can provide a huge advantage and shorten the time of developing and marketing a product. Technology allows an organization to customize their product in the market. Lastly, the product should comply with the legal aspects to avoid problem with its success. References Akin-Ogundeji, D. O. Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld. rg. Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld. org. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. ethicsworld. org/ethicsandemployeesBhasin, H. (2010, January 22). Bite the Wax Tadpole – Why we chose a silly name. Web Development Ireland. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www. bitethewaxtadpole. com/bitethewaxtadpole. htm Bloom PN, Novelli WD. Problems and challenges in social marketin g. J Mark. 1981 Spring;45(2):79-88. PubMed PMID: 12280283. Retrieved November 11, 2012. Bonander, R. 2010. Top 10: Failed Product Launches. Retrieved on November 11, 2012 from http://ca. askmen. com/top_10/entertainment_100/139d_top_10_list. html Brand Failure – McDonald’s Arch Deluxe. Marketing Strategy, Marketing Management, Marketing News, Advertising reviews. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. marketing91. com/brand-failure-mcdonalds-arch-deluxe/ Competition in the Market   The laws of supply and demand are bestevident in a competitive market. ThinkQuest : Library. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://library. hinkquest. org/C008486F/iiid. htm Frey, C. (2006). Goldfire Innovator takes product development, process innovation to the next level. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from http://www. innovationtools. com/Resources/ideamgmt-details. asp? a=147 General Food Labeling Requirements. U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www. fda. gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocum ents/FoodLabelingNutrition/FoodLabelingGuide/ucm064866. htm Herbert, H and Grace, A. (2008). Technology. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. npgoodpractice. org/Topics/Technology/Default. aspx Perlman, C. (2008). 10 marketing Faux pas. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. level2wo. net/? p=35 POM final. Scribd. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. scribd. com/doc/75844842/POM-final Yang, Z. Bank Branch Operating Efficiency: A DEA Approach. Bank Branch Operating Efficiency: A DEA Approach. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from www. iaeng. org/publication/IMECS2009/IMECS2009_pp2087-2092. pdf How to cite Unit 1 – a Managerial Approach to Marketing, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Society and Environment Consideration Functioning and Operations

Question: How to society and environment consideration functioning and operations? Answer: Introduction Legitimacy theory is focused on the society and environment consideration while functioning and operations. It is comprised of a social contract where society and organizations are bound by an intangible agreement (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). Organizations employ various natural and community resources which are not entitled to it from inheritance in exchange of utilizing these resources; society needs them to operate with some expectations, norms, policies and beliefs. In the past years, it has been found that organizations are focused on revenue generation and improving the performance of the resources. However, in the recent years, legitimacy theory is being used in a wide number of organizations around the world. Moreover, the legitimacy theory is being researched by many scholars and researchers on its validity and importance to the economy (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). It is being criticized and accepted by various intellectuals in their different perceptions about the legitimacy and positive theory. The most explored area in the legitimacy is importance of the theory in the financial accounting system of the organization which is being hampered. Simultaneously, the role of legitimacy also forces the organization to manipulate the accounting data which results in huge financial losses. This research paper is aimed to explore the legitimacy theory integration of social contract in the accounting of organizations. The purpose of this study is to facilitate a brief on the interconnection between the society expectation and legitimacy theory. Legitimacy theory is often being used by the organization as a sustainability strategy plus to increase the competitiveness in the society due to intense competition. Nevertheless, it has also been implemented as it improves the reputation of the organization that indirectly gives financial benefits to the organization (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). The study explains legitimacy theory and social contract meaning in the reality of organizations accounting. Furthermore, the relevance and significance of social agreement within the legitimacy theory of accounting is being discussed in this study. In addition to this, the application of legitimacy theory is being projected by referencing to scholars and researchers providing strategies and different methods integrating to the accounting of organizations. Importance and role of Social Contract contained by Legitimacy Theory in Accounting This section will elucidate the connection between the social contract and legitimacy theory. This research is a significant for revealing the positive accounting theory and its relevance and its application in the society associated with the legitimacy theory. This literature review has been critically examined to view the unbiased information about the importance and role of the legitimacy theory in the financial accounting. Therefore, in the below section advantages, disadvantages, features and strategies to implement and cope-up the legitimacy theory in an organizations financial accounting has been outlined. Omran and El-Galfy, (2014) demonstrates that Legitimacy theory is defined as operation of an organization according to the social expectations, perception, values, norms and beliefs. The organizations functions are being constructed in such a way that it fulfills the desire of the society and environment concerns in it (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). It is one of the most criticized and studied theory in the positive accounting theory. It is the insight of the development in the management of accounting which is based on the ethical literature. It has been found that legitimacy is a bridge between the social and environmental disclosures which drives the powerful mechanism by the organizations which involves public participation in the operations for the betterment of the society and other community issues (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). Social contract is the agreement with the social of organizations which is determined as a favor or consideration to the society in exchange of utilization of natural and community resources that are not inherited by the company. As per the legitimacy theory, the natural and community resources belong to the society and environment and when organization uses these resources they automatically bind with the obligation to serve the society and environment with the same proportion (Mansell, 2013). The natural resources includes land, machinery, metals and everything, whereas community resources are the labors and workers which has been hired by the company to make their ultimate products and services. The legitimacy theory is pivotal for existence of any business entity. The social acceptance helps an organization in carry on its business smoothly and facilitates the competitive advantage to the organization (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). In addition to this, Tilling, (2004) reports that social contract is a powerful element that helps an organization to fulfill the social expectation. The social contract is divided into two parts that is explicit and implicit. When an organization fulfills all the legal and authorized practices to start a business with legitimacy is called as explicit social contract. Rest of all the considerations and practices are included in the implicit social contract (Tilling, 2004). Apart from this, legitimacy theory is influenced by society and environmental elements to a very large extent. The growth of an organization is depended on many factors that are government policies, demands from stakeholders, market situations and condition worldwide. Likewise, markets and growth of society is also influenced with the development of industries in terms of innovation, technology, methods and traditions. Legitimacy theory facilitates various opportunities to the organizations in market to develop and expand their business in new locations and cover wide area geographically (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). It also helps in integrating innovation, creativity and new ideas in the organizational culture which promotes the employees to involve in the operations. The involvement ad engagement of the employee results in the employees loyalty and increases the productivity as well as performance of the employee. At the same time, it ensures the profitability and financial support to the organizations. Precisely, it ensures a leading market position to the organization (Tilling, 2004). Moreover, Mousa1 and Hassan, (2015) illustrates that there are two main classification of legitimacy theory in the financial accounting which needs to be addressed. First is macro-theory of legitimacy which is also known as legitimacy theory comprising of values, beliefs, perception which has been adopted and integrated by the organization in the operations and functions as a whole to be accepted by the society and to fulfill the social expectations. In this particular class, there are some layers of institutions which are associated with the functions of the organizations (Mousa1 and Hassan, 2015). The institutional level that has an impact on the organizations operations are government, society, religion and capitalism. Furthermore, one layer down which is the second classification is called as organizational level or strategic legitimacy theory involves the organization which has a share based structure and company limited has four interrelated functions that have an influence in the institutions that is establishment, maintenance, extension and defense. In this regard, the organizations always needs to congruent with each of the level that is institutional and organizations (Mullerat, 2010). It will be considered as a social value, beliefs and behavior which facilitate the social acceptance to the organizations. The congruency of these two value system helps in finding the degree of legitimacy in an organization (Mousa1 and Hassan, 2015). Low degree of legitimacy is less pursue of social expectation in the organizational operations and vise-a-versa. Unerman, et al., (2010) describes that social contract within the legitimacy theory is a significant way to gain the votes and favors of society which will benefit an organization in the long run. It has been identified in the researches that integration of legitimacy in the organization in the accounting facilitates a clear and transparent financial reporting. It helps the stakeholders to believe in the organizational operations and invest more money in the organization. In addition to this, it is an essential part of the organizations operation for the substantial and sustainable growth and development of an organization (Unerman, et al., 2010). Not only it helps in attaining the organization a competitive edge in the intense competitive market but also it helps in improving the image or reputation of the company in the society. With the improvement in the reputation of the company, it becomes easy for any company to raise the fund for the expansion and growth of the company in the market. Legitimacy theory helps in making a strong market position in the industry that helps the company in increasing the investment in the market and raising the capital funds from investors, financers and potential shareholders. Moreover, the government also helps the company in promoting its business if the legitimacy is being implemented in the organization (Unerman, et al., 2010). The legitimacy theory facilitates the legal compliance in the accounting and functions of the organization as well as it provide benefits in various legal aspects too with no extra expenses in the legal battles and no serious social issues. Along with this, legitimacy theory helps in achieving a positive environment in the surrounding of the organization that helps in opportunist cultural environment with affirmative attitude in the employees behavior (Unerman, et al., 2010). Thus, it overall helps the company in moving forward and adds several external as well as internal benefits which are crucia l for any organization. On the other hand, Gherardi, et al., (2014) expresses that insufficiency or failure of comply in the social contract by the organization may result in a very serious consequences. The existence of the organization may come into jeopardy and many external or legal hurdles may come into the way of success. The failure of the social contract can be a consequence of many reasons. Nevertheless, it may seriously damage the reputation of the company admittedly as well as certainly responsible for failure of the business (Gherardi, et al., 2014). The survival of the business may hamper, if it does not follow the legitimacy theory effectively. In addition to this, the failure in effective incorporation of social contract may decrease the demand of the products and services in the market. The public will ignore or less purchase products and services from that organization. It will also affect the community resources and decreases the benefits from them. The employees will start walking out of the organization and leave their jobs. Furthermore, the new hiring or job search may face difficulties. The organizational culture will be not healthy and clear due to lack of legitimacy and no transparency in the accounts will create uncertainty and hesitation in stakeholders (Gherardi, et al., 2014). The investors, loan providers and financers will not consent for long-term or short term financial support to the organization. It may also cause the extra expenses, if the proper measures or rules of societal norms are not complied by the organization. The ineffectual expenses will be used for the cases, suits and other legal obligation to settle the social and environmental issues caused by the company (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). Apart from this, the organization will not be able to take the advantage of competitive edge and can face huge competition in the market which can decrease the sale of the products and services offered by the organization. Therefore, it can be identified that the effective implementation of social expectations, belief, norms and bounds is very important without which the existence of the business entity is not possible (Mullerat, 2010). The performance and productivity of overall financial position of the organization will start declining. In the view of Lightstone and Driscoll, (2008) the legitimacy theory is being covered in three stages of legitimacy that is gaining, maintaining and regaining legitimacy. Gaining legitimacy is foremost and beginning of the organizations operations that implement the legitimacy theory. Innovation, newness and creative ideas and lack of traditional beliefs and values is being implemented to develop a new structure or processes in the organization (Lightstone and Driscoll, 2008). This stage provides the significant time and parameters to set the legitimacy in the organization and acts proactively if an issue occurs. In case of maintaining legitimacy, it is an easier task than gaining and repairing legitimacy. The future changes and social expectation is being synchronized and aligned with the current operations and behavior of the organization to minimize the legitimacy gap. The past values, norms and practices are being protected by supporting the legitimacy already practiced by the or ganization. The forecast of trends, behavior, fashion and perception are being forecasted regarding the maintaining legitimacy and updating the current expectation of the society (Lightstone and Driscoll, 2008). In the end, repairing or regaining legitimacy is the method to react on the unforeseen and future crisis that challenges the growth and development of the organization. There are strategies like strategic restructuring and normalizing the accounts that helps the organization in achieving the legitimacy. accordingly, these stages are very important to be identified by the organization before implementing the legitimacy theory in the operations. These stages will give the perfect solution to the organization faced by the organization (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). As per the opinion of Idowu and Filho (2009), it has been found in many studies that social expectations are not static in nature they are ever changing and flexible which are trended over time. The social expectations are based on preferences, beliefs, trends, norms and practices in the society which can be influenced by many factors like technology, situations, government policies and market conditions. Thus, these ever changing needs and desires should be closely watched by the organizations to fulfill these social expectations. In addition to this, the social contract and integration of legitimacy in the accounting may cost high at times which cannot be affordable by the medium or small sized organization (Idowu and Filho, 2009). The legitimacy theory also need some research on how to implement it effectively plus how it is being integrated by the fellow organizations. In case of small sized and private organizations, it can be difficult for the management to arrange the sufficie nt amount to integrate legitimacy theory at a certain time. In multinational and big companies, sometimes the changes are wide and fast plus cannot be notices with light research (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). These changes with time and actual implementation of the legitimacy have some differences which are known as legitimacy gap. The legitimacy gape occurs due to variable and capricious nature of social expectation and organizations are unable to cope-up with these changes. Thus, the difference between the actions and behavior of the organization is not synchronized with the ever changing and dynamic nature of the social expectation which is not been adjusted within the time frame results in legitimacy gap (Idowu and Filho, 2009). It pressurizes the organizations and business entities to operate and accounting with manipulations. Besides this, Wangombe, (2013) explains that communication is the most vital element in legitimacy of financial reporting and accounting in an organization. The organizations use manipulative and effective communication skills with the help of professional s and expert to cover up the issues and highlight the beneficial facts about the organization. This procedure is not illegal and acts in accordance with law and order but the intention is to hide the actual information and provide the partial information to manipulate the investors (Wangombe, 2013). Thus, organizations start to manipulate and influence stakeholders with the falseness and pretend the financial reports according to societal expectation and environmental prospective to be accepted by the society. The legitimacy gap becomes substantial problem when in the adverse times or randomly media reveals the past records of the organization which suddenly destroys the business entity in sometime and make its survival very diffic ult (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). In addition to this, this situation withdraws the support of public in the organization and scarcity of financial and management resources s being faced by the organization. According to Hayek, (2013), in order to cope-up the situation of legitimacy gap and implementation of effective legitimacy theory, some of the researchers have provided various techniques and strategies that can help an organization in application of social contract within the legitimacy theory. It has been explored by the researchers that the legitimacy concept is related with the favor and majority of any belief, value, norms and behavior which is being accept by the public (Hayek, 2013). In order to apply it effectively, the most important element which should be noted is to communicate with slight alteration, modification to manipulate the stakeholders opinion and sense of decision making. Dowling and Pfeffer (1975) declared three way strategies through which a business entity can implement the legitimacy in its operations. The organization should identify and articulate the goals, methods, results, values and mission compliance with the social expectation, values and beliefs (Ha yek, 2013). Next, the organization can change the methods and strategies of social acceptance to attempt the legitimacy in the operation which is accepted by the majority of the public. The organizational current practices will be articulated as an ideal example of legitimacy and social contract conformity. Lastly, the attempt of legitimacy is done with the help of symbols, institutions and values in the communication practices that provides the strong validation to the organization (Hayek, 2013). Similarly, Dushi and Brdufi, (2015) explored that Lindblom (1994) suggested that there are another four strategies which helps the company in escaping the pressure of social acceptance and legitimacy can be achieved by these ways (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). Along with this, the researcher is not concerned with the falseness and pretending the facts, the accounting and financial reports must be articulated to ensure the acceptance of the society as follows: Relevant public will be informed and educated regarding the organizational practices which are aligned with the societal values and norms and fulfills the social expectations. The disclosure of accounting and financial reports will be presented in such a way that changes the perception of the relevant public about the organizations effort to attain the societal acceptance but not necessarily changes the actual and real behavior, practices and performance of the organization (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). The articulation of facts will be done in such a way that the issues/problems will be covered and ignored in front of public and other irrelevant issues are addressed to divert the decision making and manipulate their opinion. Lastly, by demonstrating the relevant public about the unreasonable demands and expectations which cannot be fulfilled practically and that changes the external aspects of social expectation (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). The relevant public in the above text is referred to the stakeholders of the company and majority of people who are already in the favor of the company. Relevant public is the most influential people that can be easily manipulated by the company and influences the growth and development of the company very highly. Apart from this, Ali and Rizwan, (2013) states that Deegan and Unerman (2006) also reacted on the legitimacy theory and its application by focusing on the reputation risk management which can be done with the help of active management and reaction of the organization according to the expectation of the society (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). Thus, it can be inferred that the strategies and methods help an organization in incorporating the legitimacy theory plays a vital role in social acceptance. Not only it provides the degree of legitimacy in an organization but also it enables the temporary solutions to the organization to solve the urgent compliance of social contract to minimi ze the damage. The effective legitimacy theory provides the good relation between the stakeholders and management which automatically responsible for fast services and responses to the clients in the market. It ensures the production and performance of the organization with good potential and in positive environment (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). Conclusion From the above discussion it can be implicated that the legitimacy theory and social contract is interrelated and layered aspect of each other. Social contract is the agreement between the society and the organization that provides a beneficial relationship to each other. Society provides the right to the organization to use the natural and community resources to the organization, whereas the organization is obliged in the exchange of using the resources and concerned with the environmental and social challenges. Along with this, every organization has a responsibility to operate complying with society value, norms, behavior and perceptions for a sustainable growth. There are various benefits of integrating the legitimacy in the organization such as competitive advantage, profitability, good relationship establishment between the stakeholders and the organization. On the other hand, the failure in integration of legitimacy theory because of legitimacy gap which is due to time adjustment and changing needs and desires of the society. Furthermore, the legitimacy theory has three stages that are gaining, maintaining and repairing for the application of legitimacy theory. These stages are very helpful in determining the strategies which should be applied by the organization for the effective integration of social contract and expectation. It has also been found that social expectation is an ever changing process and therefore firms need to watch and forecast values, tastes, trends and behavior one step ahead of the society and adjust the strategies with it. The failure of the adjustment can suffer the company from financial losses as well as hamper the existence of the organization. In addition to this, some of the strategies and methods are being given by the researchers to protect from the failure of the society expectations. These strategies ar e not concerned with the falseness and pretending the accounting to manipulate the decision of the stakeholders. References Ali, W., and Rizwan, M. 2013. Factors influencing corporate social and environmental Disclosure (csed) Practices in the Developing Countries: An Institutional Theoretical Perspective. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(3), pp. 590-609. Dushi, D., and Brdufi, N. 2015. Social Contract and the Governments Legitimacy. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6(6), pp. 392-398. Gherardi, L., et al. 2014. Stand-alone Sustainability Reporting and the Use of GRI in Italian Vodafone: A Longitudinal Analysis. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 164, pp. 11 25. Hayek, F. A. 2013. Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. Routledge. Idowu, S. O., and Filho, W. L. 2009. Professionals ? Perspectives of Corporate Social Responsibility. Springer Science Business Media. Lightstone, K., and Driscoll, C. 2008. Disclosing Elements of Disclosure: A Test of Legitimacy Theory and Company Ethics. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 25(1), pp. 721. Mansell, S. F. 2013. Capitalism, Corporations and the Social Contract: A Critique of Stakeholder Theory. Cambridge University Press. Mousa1, G. A., and Hassan, N. T. 2015. Legitimacy Theory and Environmental Practices: Short Notes. International Journal of Business and Statistical Analysis 2(1), pp. 41-53. Mullerat, R. 2010. International Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Corporations in the Economic Order of the 21st Century. Kluwer Law International. Omran, M. A., and El-Galfy, A. M. 2014. Theoretical perspectives on corporate disclosure: a criticalevaluation and literature survey. Asian Review of Accounting 22(3), pp. 257 286. Omran, M. A., and Ramdhony, D. 2015. Theoretical Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: A Critical Review. International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting 5(2), pp. 38-55. Samkin, G., and Schneider, A. 2010. Accountability, narrative reporting and legitimation: The case of a New Zealand public benefit entity. Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal 23 (2), pp. 256-289. Tilling, M. V. 2004. Some thoughts on legitimacy theory in social and environmental accounting. Social and Environmental Accountability Journal 24(2), pp. 3-7. Unerman, J., et al. 2010. Sustainability Accounting and Accountability. Routledge. Wangombe, D. K. 2013. Multi-Theoretical Perspective of Corporate Environmental Reporting: A Literature Review. Rev. Integr. Bus. Econ. Res. 2(2), pp. 655-671

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Tea Industry in Bangladesh free essay sample

Though our tea industry suffered a serious setback in 1971 but we could succeed in reversing with the help of the government, foreign assistance and hard work of our planters. It is hoping to increase our production to an average of over 1500 Kg per hal in a few years time. We have undertaken measures to improve our quality of tea by extending the area with new varieties of hybrid clone, modernizing factories and improving infrastructure. We now annually produce 60 million Kg of Tea and we hope to increase our production to 90 million Kg in the next 15 years.This paper attempts to devise a strategy to promote effective social dialogues between the tea plantation workers and their employers. It also attempts to determine the practicality of providing social protection to women workers through their own organizations and thereby enhances their labor productivity. Systematic training for the members of the workers organization has proved to be a breakthrough in terms of skill development, consciousness rising, and blossoming of self -confidence. We will write a custom essay sample on Tea Industry in Bangladesh or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Hence, the possibility of providing skill training to the workers, particularly women workers through their organization, has also been explored in this paper. The art of tea cultivation in Bangladesh began over a century and a half ago in the 1840s near the Chittagong Club. The first tea garden to be established was Malnicherra in Sylhet in 1854. Its commercial production began shortly thereafter in 1857. Today, the main tea-growing areas lie to the east of the Ganga-Jumma flood plain in the hill areas bordering Indias Cachar tea-growing district.Most of Bangladesh tea grows at only 80-300 ft. above sea level northeast of Sylhet in the country. During its initial stage, plantation in Bangladesh faced acute shortage of labor. No local workers were willing to do this job since it is very hard and labor intensive. The colonial British Government deployed indentured immigrants to meet this shortage. Tea plantation workers in Bangladesh came mostly from the backward class and tribal areas of central India and regions of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.The present work force in the tea plantation sector of Bangladesh is the fourth generation of those indentured immigrants. Indentured immigrants were in fact new forms of bonded labor. Their bonded nature revealed in their geographical confinement within the boundary of the tea estate. For more than a century they were confined within the same geographical boundary; most still are. Tea industry Tea industry is one of the most mature industries in Bangladesh and till today it is bearing its heritage.In Bangladesh tea cultivation began in 1857 and Malnicherra is the first tea garden in Bangladesh. Though globalization and economic liberalization contributed greatly to set up new industries in Bangladesh, a large portion of our national income comes from this industry. In our country huge amount of human resources are involved in the Garments industry and Tea industry. In Sylhet there is large number of T. E. that is why we select T. E. for our study and in this report we will try to cover one T. E from Moulavibazer, and two from Sylhet district and one from the sreemangle.In this report we give emphasis on the present practices of human resources in the some selected T. E of greater Sylhet and through this research we will make us acquainted with the real Human Resource Management operations in the tea garden of Sylhet, Moulavibazer. Some organizations are violating the human rights. Usually violation occurs at the bottom level- labors do not get sufficient wages, compensation, training facility, good working condition, and other facilities. As a result output or productions are not increasing according to expectation and the overall development is being sluggish.The owner, authority, and stakeholder should realize that neglecting the human resources in the work place a sustainable development is not possible. Tea Plantation in Bangladesh Bangladesh produces and exports a large quantity of high quality tea. Most of the tea plantations are situated in the northeastern areas of the country, around Sylhet and Srimongal. Sylhet is situated close to Bangladesh’s border with the Indian states of Meghalaya and Assam. This part of the country is covered by hillocks rising to moderate heights.The rainfall is higher than average, a fact which British tea planters realised in the 18th century to the advantage of tea cultivation. These conditions have provided rich tropical forests with many species of wildlife, scented orange groves and pineapple plantations. It is also the home of Khashia and Monipuri tribals. The waterfalls of Madhab Kunda are another very picturesque place to visit. Jafflong, where the river runs along the border between Bangladesh and India is especially beautiful. On the way there are number of haors or marshy wetlands, which are natural, depressed swamps holding water almost the whole year round.They are home to many fish and thousands of local and migratory birds. Srimongal is about 70 km south of Sylhet. It is ‘the capital of tea. Most of the tea plantations are centered here, which is the main attraction of the region. There is also a Tea Research Institute, which is open to visitors. A high percentage of tribal people add to this areas attraction. The other main attraction is the †Lawachara† forest, only few kilometers away from Srimongal, where you can see Hornbills, White-Browed Gibbons and many other animals. Tea Gardens in Bangladesh The area around Sylhet is traditional tea growing area.The picturesque Surma Valley is covered with terraces of tea gardens and lush green tropical forests. Srimangal is known as the tea capital of Bangladesh and for miles around one can see the green carpet of tea gardens on the hill slopes. The area has over 150 tea gardens including three of the largest tea gardens in the world both in area and production. Nearly 300,000 workers are employed on the tea estates of which over 75% are women. Employers prefer to engage women for plucking tea leaves since they do a better job and are paid less than the men.A visit to the tea plantation in Sylhet is a memorable experience. The gardens are relics from the days of the British Raj. The plantations were started by the British and the manager still live in white timber homes as they did in those days. The bungalows stand on huge beautifully maintained lawns and the service and lifestyle is pretty much unchanged. A relatively new area that has come under tea cultivation is the sub-Himalayan terrain of Panchagarh. The soil and climate is highly favorable for growing tea here. In fact this area is contiguous with Assam nd Bengal in India where tea has been grown for decades. Beginning with only 300 acres of land in 2000, the cash crop is now being cultivated on over 3,500 acres in Tentulia, Sadar and Atoari upazilas of Panchagarh. It can be expanded to ultimately cover about 60,000 acres. The humus content in the soil here is more than in the traditional tea-growing areas of Sylhet. The tea produced in Panchagarh is supposedly much better in quality than that of Sylhet. Several nurseries have been set up in Panchagarh and Thakurgaon to supply high quality saplings to the tea gardens.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Artist Essay Example

Artist Essay Example Artist Essay Artist Essay Artist What do you think of when you hear the word artist? Picasso, Dali, Ad Vinci, and Michelangelo are all typical answers. They are also crucial to how we define artist. Most people, including the dictionary, consider artists people that draw or paint pieces of art and make a living off of it. An artist does not have to paint or write to be considered one. In fact, an artist does not have to be a professional at all. The word artist meaner so much more, and requires a broader definition. An artist is someone who excels at something and inspires others with their work. From the street performer to the multi-million dollar piece of art to the Hessian winning quarterback, artists captivate our attention and provide us with inspiration to be better than who we already are. Many athletes could be considered artists because what they do is amazing. They inspire many normal people to do incredible things, and that is a hallmark of a great artist. Just like the painter that takes the breath away from someone, an athlete can create memorable plays with their mastery of what they do. In soccer all the mime you hear the announcer call the players artists. The way they move on the field and the things they can do with the ball inspire awe in every person that watches. What they do inspires others to do amazing things Just like them. Watching an amazing athlete sends chills down your spine. As well as athletes being considered artists, musicians could be as well. They hone their craft with much precision, and work many long hours on what they do. Their work inspires others as well, and when you hear a very nice piece of music it ivies you chills Just like an amazing piece of art. People go to concerts to see these amazing artists, Just like how people go and see art in art museums. Music has a way of changing how people think, and that is a very influential thing. Just like art that provokes thought, music can provoke emotions in people. Because of how well musicians influence thoughts and emotions, they should be considered artists. Artists are not Just confined to sports, music, and painting, they can also be writers. Thousands of books across many centuries have inspired others to lead hanged or to do great things. Almost everyone has been moved by a well written book, and this has inspired them to do something. This again is the hallmark of a great artist. Writers are some of the most influential people in the world. While more commonly thought of as an artist than an athlete or musician, a writer is still not the first thing to pop into your head when you think of an artist, but it should definitely be thought of more often. In the early sasss, an artist was thought of as a painter, and the art they were aging was in the midst of a change. As the century progressed up into the early sasss, the artist was thought of more as someone who hones their craft, and it branched out into music and sports, much like today. Now in the 21st century, the thought of what an artist is is much broader, and encompasses much more than the previous century. Now artists are people who perform their craft to a level that most The word artist cannot be overused. Anyone who inspires someone will their skill in a particular thing should be considered one. Also, the people we call artists do not have to be specifically professionals.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

A Report on Operating Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

A Report on Operating Systems - Essay Example The 'ENIAC' had the capacity to do 100,000 calculations per second (White, 2005). As the needs increased, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated, special-purpose analog computers during the 20th century, which used a direct physical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these features became more and more uncommon after the introduction digital computer. A succession of steadily more potent and versatile computers were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, with increasing use of digital electronics (invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more versatile programmability (Computer, 2006). Later, Intel released the world's first commercial microprocessor, the 4004 on November 15th, 1971. This is a Fourth generation computer using a microprocessor to locate much of the computer's processing abilities on a single (small) chip. The microprocessor allowed the development of microcomputers, personal computers that were small and cheap enough to be affordable by ordinary people. The first such personal computer was the MITS Altair 8800, released at the end of 1974, but it was followed by computers such as the Apple I & II, Commodore PET and eventually the original IBM PC in 1981. Although processing power and storage capacities have increased beyond all recognition since the 1970s the underlying technology of LSI (large scale integration) or VLSI (very large scale integration) microchips has remained basically the same, so it is widely regarded that most of today's computers still belong to the fourth generation (White, 2005).The demands of today's computer users as well as the modern network have moved beyond that of simple client server connectivity. There is now the availability of a wide variety of end-to-end communication products aimed at specific business functions. These include access points, broadband, cable, content networking, contact centre solutions, data centre networking, network management, optical, routing, security, VPN, storage networking, switching, unified communications, video, voice and wireless (Networking, 2004). Today's computers also have huge speed and capacity for information processing compared to computers of the past, and they have become exponentially more powerful over the years (a phenomenon known as Moore's Law). The original computers were as huge as the size of a big room. Today's smaller computers for individual use, called personal computers, and their portable equivalent, the notebook computer, are ubiquitous information-processing and communication tools and are perhaps what most non-experts think of as "a co mputer". However, the most common form of computer in use today is the embedded computer, small computers used to control another device. Embedded computers control machines from fighter planes to digital cameras (Computer, 2006). Historical developments in operating systemsSoon after the invention of the computer, it was discovered that certain tasks were required in many different programs; an early example was computing some of the standard mathematical functions. For the purposes of efficiency, standard versions of these were collected in libraries and made