Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Income Inequality

Milestone Decisions - Essay Example In this respects, Plessy has additionally recorded the appeal against John H. Ferguson, the chief of the rail organization of United States (Street Law, Inc., 2000). By inspecting the case situation, it has been seen that the Plessy v. Ferguson case was focused on the infringement of law identified with racial segregation. The case was agreeable to John Howard Ferguson, who was the legitimate authority of the case for Louisianan Railroad Companies, as a respondent of the case. In agreement, the choice was declared by the incomparable court of Louisiana expressing that Plessey was legitimized according to the Unites State laws, which was built up for making isolation according to racial premise. For this situation, the enactment was perceived as significant impact behind the dynamic procedure of Supreme Court of Unites States (Street Law, Inc., 2000). Additionally, Supreme Court’s choice in the time of 1875 has confined the administrative government’s capacity towards making any sort of mediation in the state government issue. So as to make any sort of contribution in the racial isolation just as segregation related act, the government needs to take the consent from the Congress in power (Street Law, Inc., 2000). Conflictingly, for the offended party, Plessy’s legal counselor gave proof, which proposed that the infringement of rules under thirteenth and fourteenth revisions had occurred by the railroad organization. As indicated by the offended party, the state railroad organization was blamed for making contrasts between the boarding of rail vehicle for whites just as for shaded race during offering types of assistance. According to the fourteenth amendment rules, Plessy was furnished with the ticket of getting to regular compartments, which in reality makes him subject for equivalent treatment in the rail other than the way that the standard to guarantee separate offices based on consumers’ race was in itself morally

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chemical Change Definition in Chemistry

Substance Change Definition in Chemistry A concoction change, otherwise called a compound response, is where at least one substances are modified into at least one new and various substances. At the end of the day, a substance change is a synthetic response including the adjustment of iotas. While a physical change can frequently be turned around, a synthetically change normally can't be, aside from through increasingly compound responses. At the point when a synthetic change happens, there is additionally an adjustment in the vitality of the framework. A substance change that radiates heat is called an exothermic response. One that assimilates heat is called an endothermic response. Key Takeaways: Chemical Change A synthetic change happens when one substance is changed into at least one new items by means of a concoction reaction.In a compound change, the number and kind of particles stays consistent, however their game plan is altered.Most substance changes are not reversible, with the exception of through another substance response. Instances of Chemical Changes Any concoction response is a case of a compound change. Models include: Joining preparing pop and vinegar (which air pockets off carbon dioxide gas)Combining any corrosive with any baseCooking an eggBurning a candleRusting ironAdding warmth to hydrogen and oxygen (produces water)Digesting foodPouring peroxide on an injury In correlation, any change that doesn't shape new items is a physical change as opposed to a compound change. Models incorporate breaking a glass, airing out an egg, and blending sand and water. Instructions to Recognize a Chemical Change Substance changes might be recognized by: Temperature Change - Because there is a vitality change in a compound response, there is frequently a quantifiable temperature change.Light - Some synthetic responses produce light.Bubbles - Some substance changes produce gases, which can be viewed as air pockets in a fluid solution.Precipitate Formation - Some concoction responses produce strong particles that may stay suspended in an answer or drop out as a precipitate.Color Change - A shading change is a decent pointer that a substance response has happened. Responses including progress metals are especially liable to create colors.Odor Change - A response may discharge an unpredictable substance that delivers a trademark scent.Irreversible - Chemical changes are regularly troublesome or difficult to reverse.Change in Composition - When ignition happens, for instance, debris might be delivered. At the point when food decays, its appearance noticeable changes. Note a synthetic change may happen with no of these pointers being watched. For instance, the rusting of iron produces heat and a shading change, however it sets aside a long effort for the change to be clear, despite the fact that the procedure is continuous. Sorts of Chemical Changes Scientists perceive three classes of substance changes: inorganic synthetic changes, natural compound changes, and biochemical change. Inorganic concoction changes are compound responses that dont for the most part include the component carbon. Instances of inorganic changes including blending acids and bases, oxidation (counting ignition), and redox responses. Natural substance changes are those the include natural mixes (containing carbon and hydrogen). Models incorporate raw petroleum breaking, polymerization, methylation, and halogenation. Biochemical changes are natural substance changes that happen in living life forms. These responses are constrained by catalysts and hormones. Instances of biochemical changes incorporate aging, the Krebs cycle, nitrogen obsession, photosynthesis, and processing.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

The History Of The Conflict Perspective essay

The History Of The Conflict Perspective essay The conflict perspective definition and theory The conflict perspective is the major theory in sociology; with its help sociologists can get explanation for things that happened in society and history. The idea of the conflict theory was introduced by Karl Marx, who convinced that social classes (both groups and individuals) interact with each other on the basis on the conflict, but not the agreement. It means that the strongest groups will always use their power to keep less powerful groups under their control. Actually, the conflict is viewed as the main engine of changes in society, because it produces discrepancies that could be solved in creation new conflicts and discrepancies. So, the process is endless, and this is how the human history evolved. Here are the main principles of the conflict theory: the conflict theory keeps an idea that any fighting happens because of struggle between different groups or classes of society; each society group fights with others to get more resources; all groups want to protect their needs and interests, and they block the other groups progress; each groups individuals express their aggressive impulses while being in relationships with others. Being a humanist, Karl Marx wanted people to reach their full potential. Marx supposed that the entire story can be characterized by an economics fight between the rich and poor people. In his theory, Marx explained why and how people were able to separate from animals when they learned that its possible to produce their own means of existence, but not just to use only provided by nature. He set the conflict between classes as the major moving force of all history and supposed that all changes of society are defined by the conflict. Conflict theory in the context of gender If to view gender from the position of the conflict theory, we can say that men are the dominant and powerful gender that used to subordinate women. In most countries, men were those who historically held responsibility and power in their families, and women had to fulfill their own obligations and roles, such as raising children, making housework, cooking food. The German sociologist F. Engels made research on the gender roles and family hierarchy from the perspective of K. Marx. He supposed that relationship between man and woman in family is almost the same as relationship between proletariat and bourgeoisie classes, because women are dependent and have less power and rights than men. Modern sociologists say that nowadays, the family model was changed because many women became breadwinners, so theyve got the power in the structure of family. Such women try to create more democratic atmosphere in their families, though some of them are still responsible for all domestic problems. Human always tries to get power, whether it is politics, or outdoor games, work place or family. Authoritative position is important for all people. There are a lot of different communities and social groups that can have different religions and classes. All these people have quite various values, perspectives and goals. The collision between their values and perspectives causes the conflict between people. The conflict may have different reasons such as owning the land or power, production, or the political power. Its possible to say that people interact with each other using not a cooperation, but competition, and of course it causes a conflict. We know that all people always strive for advantage and power, so it means the conflict between them changes constantly. When we have large communities that compete for anything, it often can lead to significant social changes. So, conflict perspective means all differences between people and groups in the society.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died - 842 Words

Mikalyn Hutchins Bozeman AP Prep English 9 30 October 2015 â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† by Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson was likely influenced by epitaphs on tombstones. She uses floral language like Frances Osgood, and did not write the way the general public thought women should write, like the way of Helen Hunt Jackson. It is possible that is the reason she did not publish her works (Petrino). In the poem ‘I heard a fly buzz when I died’, Emily Dickinson uses metaphors in order to say that everyone dies and it is not always the most desirable way to die. Emily Dickinson was part of the American Transcendentalist movement. The word â€Å"transcendental† means character, thought, or action, so it is no surprise the movement was called Transcendentalism. The transcendentalists often worked together, unlike poets from other movements ( The transcendentalists, particularly the women, often wrote about death and many people wonder why (Noble). The poem â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† is about a person lying on their death bed after having a will written. The persona, the person telling the story as a narrator, has been distracted by a fly. Emily Dickinson used metaphors, foreshadowing, and personification in â€Å"I Heard a fly Buzz When I Died.† A metaphor is a comparison of two unlike things. An extended metaphor is a metaphor that extends through stanzas or even through the entire poem. The poem is an extended metaphor, comparing the random, ugly fly and anShow MoreRelatedI Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died Essay1330 Words   |  6 PagesEmily Dickinson s â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is an elegy written from the perspective of the speaker who is already dead and who is reflecting back on the last moments of her life and the moment of her death. The speaker tells the story of his/her own deathbed scene: describing the final experiences and sensations before the exact moment of death. The poem uses specific language, descriptive visual and aural imagery, and other poetic devices to convey the confusion and frustration that speakerRead MoreI Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died Essay1252 Words   |  6 Pa ges Emily Dickson â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is an elegy written from the perspective of the speaker who is already a dead person who is reflecting back on the last moments of her life and the moment of her death. The poem uses specific language, descriptive visual and aural imagery, and other poetic devices to convey confusion and frustration that speaker s experience as at the very end accepting that their life is coming to an end, a fly came into their notice and disturbed their final momentsRead MoreAnalysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died996 Words   |  4 PagesRomantic Era of poetry, where everything was romanticized: death, love, etc. Of her poems, â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died,† is the most difficult to acquire the meaning from, but also the darkest of all her poems. In the poem, Dickinson describes a scene of a person, on their death bed, surrounded by people. The mood is calm, and serene, but it is interrupted by a buzzing fly. As the poem progresses, the pesky fly is forgotten and Dickinson explains the doleful environment in the room. The poem goesRead MoreAnalysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1137 Words   |  5 PagesEmily Dickinson’s â€Å"I heard a Fly buzz - when I died† describes a death speaker looks back the moment of his or her death. Using the objects like the storm, the fly and the melancholy of the people around to express the mood of the speaker, Dickinson reveals that faces the death, the speaker is afraid at first, but finally, the speaker finds the calmness and peace inside herself or himself. Like â€Å"I heard a Fly buzz - when I died†, After Death also addresses a moment before death. Rossetti uses theRead MoreCritical Analysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1381 Words   |  6 PagesLater in he r life, Dickinson writes about death and the overwhelming presence of death. Her famous poem, I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died, talks about death and the decay of the body. According to Helen Vendler’s Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries, it gives an analysis of the I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died in line 7 of the poem the king will be coming and will reclaim what belongs to him and when he comes it will be witnessed by the bystanders in the room. The King is coming for the deceased andRead More An Annotation of Emily Dickinsons I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died1091 Words   |  5 PagesAn Annotation of Emily Dickinsons I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died Emily Dickinsons poem I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died is centralized on the events of death and is spoken through the voice of the dying person. The poem explores both the meaning of life and death through the speaker and the significant incidents at the time of near death that the speaker notices. Many of Dickinsons poems contain a theme of death that searches to find meaning and the ability to cope with the inevitable. ThisRead MoreEmily Dickinson s I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died846 Words   |  4 PagesElements of â€Å"I heard a Fly Buzz When I Died† In some instances within literature, writers surprise readers by incorporating ideas that the reader may or may not expect. Within Emily Dickinson’s poem â€Å"I heard a Fly Buzz When I Died†, readers are introduced to a ghostly speaker that discusses the scene of their deathbed. Readers are exposed to many surprises throughout various aspects of the poem. One aspect of the poem that surprises readers is the relationship between the speaker and the fly .The firstRead More Death in Dickinsons I heard a Fly Buzz When I died Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesDeath in Dickinsons I heard a fly buzz when I died Emily Dickinson’s poem â€Å"I heard a fly buzz when I died† is a reflection on what happens when one dies. In the poem, the speaker is waiting to die. It seems as though they are expecting something spectacular to happen at the moment of their death. This spectacular event they are expecting does not happen. I heard a fly buzz when I died By Emily Dickinson I heard a fly buzz when I died; The stillness round my form Was like the stillnessRead MoreIssues of Mortality in Emily Dickinson’s â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died595 Words   |  3 PagesDickinson’s â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died â€Å"symbolizes the death that Emily saw around her daily. Emily Dickinson wrote the poem around the time of the Civil war which was between the years 1861 through the years 1865.Emily Dickinson was socially awkward, and around the time of her early twenties completely secluded herself from the outside world. Despite the fact that her family had strong political traditions, Emily and her brother seemed uninterested in the war. Very much so that when her brotherRead MoreAn Analysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died and Jilting of Granny Weatherall1714 Words   |  7 PagesChrist then they will go to heaven, however, if a person fails to let go of their sins or does not live accept Christ then they will not find eternal life in heaven. Both â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† by Katherine Anne Porter and â€Å"I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died† by Emily Dickinson depict characters who fail to find salvation after death because of their inability to see God in the physical form; the authors illustrate this using different literary elements including style, symbols and allusions

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Descriptive Essay Immigrants In America - 1884 Words

Immigrants in America I nervously start to fidget with the ring on my thumb as I watch the trees pass by from the window of the bus. My legs start to shake. My heart thumps loudly. So loud I’m afraid everyone can hear it. Today is the first day of school in America. America is beautiful. There’s so much to see. The beautiful mountains remind me of large palaces and towers. The warm colors shining on the lake from the sunset remind me of Begonia flowers we grew in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is loud, crowded and chaotic. The heat soars up to 100 degrees. But here in Vermont it’s cool, and quiet. I’ve never been to a place this quiet before. I like it, its peaceful here. I have been on this public bus with my dad for the past 20 minutes. I feel†¦show more content†¦The clean tiles sparkled like a diamond. I listened to the quick patter of my feet as I tried to keep up with my dad’s long strides. The white walls were filled with colorful art drawn by students. The hallway was empty. I saw students in classrooms as we walked by, which meant that class had already started. Eventually we arrived at a hallway with a sign at the top that read, â€Å"KINDERGARTEN† in big red letters. I’m not exactly sure what â€Å"Kindergarten† is, but we’ve never had that in Bangladesh. We finally arrived at a classroom where the teacher ushered for us to come inside. All the students were already in the classroom. The classroom consisted of a shiny mocha-colored desk on the right next to the door, filled with multiple papers and colorful pens. There was a large round blue rug in the corner. On the left was a play pen with a bunch of stuffed animals and toys. On the blue painted wall was a clean white board with different colored markers. There were multiple tables and chairs placed in the center of the room. My dad and I walked in as the whole class stared at us. My face turned red from all the attention. My dad and the teacher talked for a while until my dad turned around and kneeled in front of me. â€Å"I’m going to go now. Ask your teacher if you need any help. I’ll come pick you up after school ok? Don’t worry you’ll be fine.† I nodded. I’ve been to school in Bangladesh without my parents before. I’ll be fine. My dad walked out of the classroom andShow MoreRelated Presenting People in Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes, and Island Man579 Words   |  3 PagesPresenting People in Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes, and Island Man In this essay I will compare the ways in which the poets present people in â€Å"Two Scavengers in a truck, two beautiful people in a Mercedes† by Lawrence Ferlinghetti and â€Å"Island Man† by Grace Nichols. In this essay I will look at the shape, structure, poetic devices and language in both poems. Firstly I will examine what the two poems are about and the ways how both poets portray the peopleRead MoreRomantic Period of Literature in America Essay949 Words   |  4 Pagesabout the romantic movement. Themes of the romantic period include nature as a refuge, high imagination, and emotional intensity. All of these influences and themes culminate in many different forms of literature including poem, short story, and essay. A drastic shift from the Puritan and Quaker writings of the colonial period in American literature, the romantic movement was heavily influenced by a changing colonial world. The United States, closely following a revolutionary victory, began pushingRead MoreThe By Roger Bonair Agard And Gloria Anzaldua Essay1608 Words   |  7 Pagesfigure turning white, the way that many aspects of black culture were being adapted into white culture. Anzaldua also employs imagery to initiate the call for activism in her poem by illustrating the poor conditions and injustices that illegal immigrants face in the workplace. She introduces the abuse of power that employers hold when she writes that they work â€Å"from sunup to dark-15 hours sometimes†¦. Last Sunday they asked for a day off wanted to pray and rest, write letters to their familias..Read MoreThe Night Of A Salem State Writer s Series Event1135 Words   |  5 Pagescreeping just a few minutes past seven thirty the Writer’s Series event began. The Writer’s Series is run by the creative writing devision of the Salem State Arts program. It features published author of short stories, biography, poetry, and memoir and essays who come to the campus and preform free to reading. On Tuesday, I got the chance to attend my second Writer’s Series event. Featuring two poets Shari Caplan and Jarita Davis. The event began with Shari a Salem State alum who is a poet, freelance essayistRead MoreLiterary Analysis : Madison Eller 1474 Words   |  6 PagesMadison Eller Literary Analysis Essay March 6, 2016 When God created Adam, He saw that Adam needed a helpmeet. Humans need other humans to be happy. Unfortunately, sin often prevents people from living peacefully with each other. Prejudice can form a great rift between cultures, but if the two cultures understood each other, perhaps they would not be so prejudiced. The Chosen provides an inside look into the culture of the Jewish people in America. The persecution of the Jews brought millions ofRead MoreCulture Shock1485 Words   |  6 PagesDaniel Dhanaraj Descriptive Essay Culture Shock: An Integration in a New Country LIBS - 7001 February 21, 2011 The word ‘CULTURE’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘CULTURA’ which means to cultivate, to grow (Harper 2010). Anthropologist Edward B. Taylor, defines culture as â€Å"That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits.† (O’Neil 2006). This is the basic premise that beliefs, morals, and customs are all based on one’sRead MoreEssay on Insight on the Life and Works of Julia Alvarez1239 Words   |  5 Pagesgreats when talking about American literature. At her current age of 64, she has a numerous amount of writings and has won many awards. Personal life experiences from her youth to the Civil War to now have highly influenced her works (Heredia). Descriptive and influential, it is clear why Alvarez’s publications have influenced society the way they have today. Aged 64, Julia Alvarez is considered to be one of the greatest American writers of current times. Although she was born a native of New YorkRead MoreAnalysis Of Michael Walzer s On What Does It Mean For An American?2244 Words   |  9 PagesMichael Walzer’s essay on â€Å"What Does It Mean to Be an American?† raises many points about the American citizen. Specifically, he discusses â€Å"American† as an adjective (Walzer). â€Å"American† is often associated with American citizens; while this is true, the term can also be applied to Canadians and Mexicans (Walzer). American is such an ambiguous adjective that it is applicable to all countries and individuals that are part of the North American continent. Like Mr. Walzer states, American is not a trulyRead MoreHistorical Period Of The Bacon s Rebellion1662 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay we will closely examine the historical period of The Bacon’s Rebellion during the late 1600’s. We wil l pay closer attention to the cause and effects of Bacon’s Rebellion and the development of the white oppressed era. Before the Jim Crow era, the invention of the word Negro or the â€Å"White man†, or descriptive concepts to describe the blacks never seemed to existed. The colonial era consisted of a large mixed population of white and black bondsmen, who occupied the same economic issuesRead MoreMelting Pot6314 Words   |  26 PagesThe Metaphor of the Melting Pot Peggy Ruth Geren The melting pot has been used metaphorically to describe the dynamics of American social life. In addition to its descriptive uses, it has also been used to describe what should or should not take place in American social life. How did the term originate? How was it used originally? How is it used in contemporary society? What are some problems with the idea of the melting pot? How is public education connected to the idea of the melting pot?

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Unit 1 †a Managerial Approach to Marketing Free Essays

Kimberly Bell American Intercontinental University Unit 1 Individual Project MKT640 – A Managerial Approach to Marketing November 11, 2012 Abstract This paper reflects challenges brought on by starting up a new product, the effectiveness and efficiency of technology when marketing, and the battle of legal and ethical complication. Given are examples of different situation of each topic to demonstrate how each take place when starting a new product or service. The Marketing Scenario Introduction When bringing a new product or service together there are certain aspects to be considered for a successful product or outcome. We will write a custom essay sample on Unit 1 – a Managerial Approach to Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Those aspects may include target, sector, location, creating an effective marketing plans and advertisement strategies. There are also certain issues and challenges that may arise when bringing this new product or service into existence. Challenges in New Product Launches When bringing the new product or service into the market, without a plan in place for its targeted consumers, sector, location, sales and distribution tactics there will be several issues and challenges to face. According to Bloom, if all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed (Bloom, 1981). Challenges: Target Market and Sector. One challenge that is very distinct is target consumers and sectors. These two challenges differ where ever you go. When bringing that new product into existence you must do the research of the market for the sector and target market. Therefore, realizing the market sectors as well as the target consumer can determine the difference that one or the other may cause for a major challenge. For example, 1990’s McDonald’s launched a product called Deluxe line to target the older people and launched a tag line â€Å"Especially for the grown up taste† to market it but the launch failed disastrously due to wrong selection of target market. Challenges: Effective Marketing Plan Another challenging task is creating an effective marketing strategy. Creating a effective marketing strategy when initiating a new product is all about keeping the consumers needs in mind. The information presented in the marketing should so explanatory that it gives precise information to the consumer about the details of the product. To give misleading information will cause product failure. Therefore, the marketing will be unsuccessful. For example, Levi Strauss came out with a product called type1 jeans with some different features in 2002 but the marketing and advertisements wasn’t properly devised and erroneously lead consumers in turn leading to failure of the product launch (Bonander, 2010) Challenges: Competition Another challenge is competition, when initiating a new product in the market because the market is constantly changing, entrepreneurs are constantly taking risks (ThinkQuest : Library). For example, in 1985 Coca-Cola launch a new version of the drink with a tag line â€Å"The best just got, better†, but the taste and quality of the new drink was not accepted by the consumers as the strongest competitors PepsiCo took the advantage and maximized its sales (POM final). Technology and New Product Development Marketing efforts can be enhanced by the use of technology. While sales and profits are progressing, it can also help the organization succeed in its marketing campaign. For example most companies are using social media and networking site like LinkedIn to market their business and services. These social networking sites can make the new product campaign even more effective. Technology: Distribution Technology can also allow way for distribution of products or services. Therefore, through desk top advertising, e-marketing, and online marketing, technology has led the way to easy access marketing (Herbert and Grace, 2008). For example, a software Gold Fire Innovator, developed by Invention Machine has three modules and comprises of tools that make use of value engineering and well formulated problem-solving methodology (TRIZ) to provide assistance to the users concerning the problem definition. Its second module called researcher Facilitates Engineers in executing semantic searches related with the powerful databases for finding appropriate resolutions and concepts (Frey, 2006). Technology: Efficiency and Effectiveness Technology also helps in the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of product data. For example, in the banking industry several models based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) have been developed to help with the analyzing and processing of data (Yang, 2009). This process not only helps the organization to be more efficient but also more effective when servicing its customers. Technology: Display Technology can also help to display your new product in an arena for a big or small audience. For example, with a web page the new product can be advertised and sent over the internet, whereas it will be displayed in a database to allow a professional and systematic presentation to a large audience and sharing the of a wealth of information on a continued bases. Legal and Ethical Implications in New Product Development Many legal and ethical implications are faced when launching a new product or service. For example, packing, labeling regulations, disclosures, and standards. There are difference regulations set forth in different countries. There is a must that organizations understand the responsibilities regarding regulations are crucial to ensuring worldwide compliance and sustained economic edge (Akin-Ogundeji, 2010). Legal and ethical implications: Packing and labor There are various countries, which have specific regulations regarding packaging and labeling. There are also stipulates on how and where the labels should be placed on a products. For example, in the US the PDP, is that portion of the package label that is most likely to be seen by the consumer at the time of purchase (General Food Labeling Requirements). This PDP must appear on the front of the product. Legal and ethical implications: Advertisement or Display The media also creates controversy due to interpretations of the signage used to advertise. For example, baby food called Gerber, when it was launched in the France, it means stack or vomiting, which had very bad impression on the customers and led to the reduced sales of the product (Perlman, 2008). Legal and ethical implications: Media Advertisement and Display can really damages the launching of a new product because the audience can misused or misunderstand the given information. For example, when Coca-Cola entered china with the same name, the characters revealed the meaning as â€Å"Bite the wax tadpole† which was very unfortunate and misinterpreted by the people resulting in a controversy (Bite the Wax Tadpole). Conclusion It is to be concluded that from the above discussions that product development is extremely important. It also determines the organizations success and failures. Therefore, it can provide a great advantage to the company success. However, in technology can provide a huge advantage and shorten the time of developing and marketing a product. Technology allows an organization to customize their product in the market. Lastly, the product should comply with the legal aspects to avoid problem with its success. References Akin-Ogundeji, D. O. Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld. rg. Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld. org. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. ethicsworld. org/ethicsandemployeesBhasin, H. (2010, January 22). Bite the Wax Tadpole – Why we chose a silly name. Web Development Ireland. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www. bitethewaxtadpole. com/bitethewaxtadpole. htm Bloom PN, Novelli WD. Problems and challenges in social marketin g. J Mark. 1981 Spring;45(2):79-88. PubMed PMID: 12280283. Retrieved November 11, 2012. Bonander, R. 2010. Top 10: Failed Product Launches. Retrieved on November 11, 2012 from http://ca. askmen. com/top_10/entertainment_100/139d_top_10_list. html Brand Failure – McDonald’s Arch Deluxe. Marketing Strategy, Marketing Management, Marketing News, Advertising reviews. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. marketing91. com/brand-failure-mcdonalds-arch-deluxe/ Competition in the Market   The laws of supply and demand are bestevident in a competitive market. ThinkQuest : Library. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://library. hinkquest. org/C008486F/iiid. htm Frey, C. (2006). Goldfire Innovator takes product development, process innovation to the next level. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from http://www. innovationtools. com/Resources/ideamgmt-details. asp? a=147 General Food Labeling Requirements. U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www. fda. gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocum ents/FoodLabelingNutrition/FoodLabelingGuide/ucm064866. htm Herbert, H and Grace, A. (2008). Technology. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. npgoodpractice. org/Topics/Technology/Default. aspx Perlman, C. (2008). 10 marketing Faux pas. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. level2wo. net/? p=35 POM final. Scribd. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www. scribd. com/doc/75844842/POM-final Yang, Z. Bank Branch Operating Efficiency: A DEA Approach. Bank Branch Operating Efficiency: A DEA Approach. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from www. iaeng. org/publication/IMECS2009/IMECS2009_pp2087-2092. pdf How to cite Unit 1 – a Managerial Approach to Marketing, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Society and Environment Consideration Functioning and Operations

Question: How to society and environment consideration functioning and operations? Answer: Introduction Legitimacy theory is focused on the society and environment consideration while functioning and operations. It is comprised of a social contract where society and organizations are bound by an intangible agreement (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). Organizations employ various natural and community resources which are not entitled to it from inheritance in exchange of utilizing these resources; society needs them to operate with some expectations, norms, policies and beliefs. In the past years, it has been found that organizations are focused on revenue generation and improving the performance of the resources. However, in the recent years, legitimacy theory is being used in a wide number of organizations around the world. Moreover, the legitimacy theory is being researched by many scholars and researchers on its validity and importance to the economy (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). It is being criticized and accepted by various intellectuals in their different perceptions about the legitimacy and positive theory. The most explored area in the legitimacy is importance of the theory in the financial accounting system of the organization which is being hampered. Simultaneously, the role of legitimacy also forces the organization to manipulate the accounting data which results in huge financial losses. This research paper is aimed to explore the legitimacy theory integration of social contract in the accounting of organizations. The purpose of this study is to facilitate a brief on the interconnection between the society expectation and legitimacy theory. Legitimacy theory is often being used by the organization as a sustainability strategy plus to increase the competitiveness in the society due to intense competition. Nevertheless, it has also been implemented as it improves the reputation of the organization that indirectly gives financial benefits to the organization (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). The study explains legitimacy theory and social contract meaning in the reality of organizations accounting. Furthermore, the relevance and significance of social agreement within the legitimacy theory of accounting is being discussed in this study. In addition to this, the application of legitimacy theory is being projected by referencing to scholars and researchers providing strategies and different methods integrating to the accounting of organizations. Importance and role of Social Contract contained by Legitimacy Theory in Accounting This section will elucidate the connection between the social contract and legitimacy theory. This research is a significant for revealing the positive accounting theory and its relevance and its application in the society associated with the legitimacy theory. This literature review has been critically examined to view the unbiased information about the importance and role of the legitimacy theory in the financial accounting. Therefore, in the below section advantages, disadvantages, features and strategies to implement and cope-up the legitimacy theory in an organizations financial accounting has been outlined. Omran and El-Galfy, (2014) demonstrates that Legitimacy theory is defined as operation of an organization according to the social expectations, perception, values, norms and beliefs. The organizations functions are being constructed in such a way that it fulfills the desire of the society and environment concerns in it (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). It is one of the most criticized and studied theory in the positive accounting theory. It is the insight of the development in the management of accounting which is based on the ethical literature. It has been found that legitimacy is a bridge between the social and environmental disclosures which drives the powerful mechanism by the organizations which involves public participation in the operations for the betterment of the society and other community issues (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). Social contract is the agreement with the social of organizations which is determined as a favor or consideration to the society in exchange of utilization of natural and community resources that are not inherited by the company. As per the legitimacy theory, the natural and community resources belong to the society and environment and when organization uses these resources they automatically bind with the obligation to serve the society and environment with the same proportion (Mansell, 2013). The natural resources includes land, machinery, metals and everything, whereas community resources are the labors and workers which has been hired by the company to make their ultimate products and services. The legitimacy theory is pivotal for existence of any business entity. The social acceptance helps an organization in carry on its business smoothly and facilitates the competitive advantage to the organization (Omran and El-Galfy, 2014). In addition to this, Tilling, (2004) reports that social contract is a powerful element that helps an organization to fulfill the social expectation. The social contract is divided into two parts that is explicit and implicit. When an organization fulfills all the legal and authorized practices to start a business with legitimacy is called as explicit social contract. Rest of all the considerations and practices are included in the implicit social contract (Tilling, 2004). Apart from this, legitimacy theory is influenced by society and environmental elements to a very large extent. The growth of an organization is depended on many factors that are government policies, demands from stakeholders, market situations and condition worldwide. Likewise, markets and growth of society is also influenced with the development of industries in terms of innovation, technology, methods and traditions. Legitimacy theory facilitates various opportunities to the organizations in market to develop and expand their business in new locations and cover wide area geographically (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). It also helps in integrating innovation, creativity and new ideas in the organizational culture which promotes the employees to involve in the operations. The involvement ad engagement of the employee results in the employees loyalty and increases the productivity as well as performance of the employee. At the same time, it ensures the profitability and financial support to the organizations. Precisely, it ensures a leading market position to the organization (Tilling, 2004). Moreover, Mousa1 and Hassan, (2015) illustrates that there are two main classification of legitimacy theory in the financial accounting which needs to be addressed. First is macro-theory of legitimacy which is also known as legitimacy theory comprising of values, beliefs, perception which has been adopted and integrated by the organization in the operations and functions as a whole to be accepted by the society and to fulfill the social expectations. In this particular class, there are some layers of institutions which are associated with the functions of the organizations (Mousa1 and Hassan, 2015). The institutional level that has an impact on the organizations operations are government, society, religion and capitalism. Furthermore, one layer down which is the second classification is called as organizational level or strategic legitimacy theory involves the organization which has a share based structure and company limited has four interrelated functions that have an influence in the institutions that is establishment, maintenance, extension and defense. In this regard, the organizations always needs to congruent with each of the level that is institutional and organizations (Mullerat, 2010). It will be considered as a social value, beliefs and behavior which facilitate the social acceptance to the organizations. The congruency of these two value system helps in finding the degree of legitimacy in an organization (Mousa1 and Hassan, 2015). Low degree of legitimacy is less pursue of social expectation in the organizational operations and vise-a-versa. Unerman, et al., (2010) describes that social contract within the legitimacy theory is a significant way to gain the votes and favors of society which will benefit an organization in the long run. It has been identified in the researches that integration of legitimacy in the organization in the accounting facilitates a clear and transparent financial reporting. It helps the stakeholders to believe in the organizational operations and invest more money in the organization. In addition to this, it is an essential part of the organizations operation for the substantial and sustainable growth and development of an organization (Unerman, et al., 2010). Not only it helps in attaining the organization a competitive edge in the intense competitive market but also it helps in improving the image or reputation of the company in the society. With the improvement in the reputation of the company, it becomes easy for any company to raise the fund for the expansion and growth of the company in the market. Legitimacy theory helps in making a strong market position in the industry that helps the company in increasing the investment in the market and raising the capital funds from investors, financers and potential shareholders. Moreover, the government also helps the company in promoting its business if the legitimacy is being implemented in the organization (Unerman, et al., 2010). The legitimacy theory facilitates the legal compliance in the accounting and functions of the organization as well as it provide benefits in various legal aspects too with no extra expenses in the legal battles and no serious social issues. Along with this, legitimacy theory helps in achieving a positive environment in the surrounding of the organization that helps in opportunist cultural environment with affirmative attitude in the employees behavior (Unerman, et al., 2010). Thus, it overall helps the company in moving forward and adds several external as well as internal benefits which are crucia l for any organization. On the other hand, Gherardi, et al., (2014) expresses that insufficiency or failure of comply in the social contract by the organization may result in a very serious consequences. The existence of the organization may come into jeopardy and many external or legal hurdles may come into the way of success. The failure of the social contract can be a consequence of many reasons. Nevertheless, it may seriously damage the reputation of the company admittedly as well as certainly responsible for failure of the business (Gherardi, et al., 2014). The survival of the business may hamper, if it does not follow the legitimacy theory effectively. In addition to this, the failure in effective incorporation of social contract may decrease the demand of the products and services in the market. The public will ignore or less purchase products and services from that organization. It will also affect the community resources and decreases the benefits from them. The employees will start walking out of the organization and leave their jobs. Furthermore, the new hiring or job search may face difficulties. The organizational culture will be not healthy and clear due to lack of legitimacy and no transparency in the accounts will create uncertainty and hesitation in stakeholders (Gherardi, et al., 2014). The investors, loan providers and financers will not consent for long-term or short term financial support to the organization. It may also cause the extra expenses, if the proper measures or rules of societal norms are not complied by the organization. The ineffectual expenses will be used for the cases, suits and other legal obligation to settle the social and environmental issues caused by the company (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). Apart from this, the organization will not be able to take the advantage of competitive edge and can face huge competition in the market which can decrease the sale of the products and services offered by the organization. Therefore, it can be identified that the effective implementation of social expectations, belief, norms and bounds is very important without which the existence of the business entity is not possible (Mullerat, 2010). The performance and productivity of overall financial position of the organization will start declining. In the view of Lightstone and Driscoll, (2008) the legitimacy theory is being covered in three stages of legitimacy that is gaining, maintaining and regaining legitimacy. Gaining legitimacy is foremost and beginning of the organizations operations that implement the legitimacy theory. Innovation, newness and creative ideas and lack of traditional beliefs and values is being implemented to develop a new structure or processes in the organization (Lightstone and Driscoll, 2008). This stage provides the significant time and parameters to set the legitimacy in the organization and acts proactively if an issue occurs. In case of maintaining legitimacy, it is an easier task than gaining and repairing legitimacy. The future changes and social expectation is being synchronized and aligned with the current operations and behavior of the organization to minimize the legitimacy gap. The past values, norms and practices are being protected by supporting the legitimacy already practiced by the or ganization. The forecast of trends, behavior, fashion and perception are being forecasted regarding the maintaining legitimacy and updating the current expectation of the society (Lightstone and Driscoll, 2008). In the end, repairing or regaining legitimacy is the method to react on the unforeseen and future crisis that challenges the growth and development of the organization. There are strategies like strategic restructuring and normalizing the accounts that helps the organization in achieving the legitimacy. accordingly, these stages are very important to be identified by the organization before implementing the legitimacy theory in the operations. These stages will give the perfect solution to the organization faced by the organization (Samkin and Schneider, 2010). As per the opinion of Idowu and Filho (2009), it has been found in many studies that social expectations are not static in nature they are ever changing and flexible which are trended over time. The social expectations are based on preferences, beliefs, trends, norms and practices in the society which can be influenced by many factors like technology, situations, government policies and market conditions. Thus, these ever changing needs and desires should be closely watched by the organizations to fulfill these social expectations. In addition to this, the social contract and integration of legitimacy in the accounting may cost high at times which cannot be affordable by the medium or small sized organization (Idowu and Filho, 2009). The legitimacy theory also need some research on how to implement it effectively plus how it is being integrated by the fellow organizations. In case of small sized and private organizations, it can be difficult for the management to arrange the sufficie nt amount to integrate legitimacy theory at a certain time. In multinational and big companies, sometimes the changes are wide and fast plus cannot be notices with light research (Omran and Ramdhony, 2015). These changes with time and actual implementation of the legitimacy have some differences which are known as legitimacy gap. The legitimacy gape occurs due to variable and capricious nature of social expectation and organizations are unable to cope-up with these changes. Thus, the difference between the actions and behavior of the organization is not synchronized with the ever changing and dynamic nature of the social expectation which is not been adjusted within the time frame results in legitimacy gap (Idowu and Filho, 2009). It pressurizes the organizations and business entities to operate and accounting with manipulations. Besides this, Wangombe, (2013) explains that communication is the most vital element in legitimacy of financial reporting and accounting in an organization. The organizations use manipulative and effective communication skills with the help of professional s and expert to cover up the issues and highlight the beneficial facts about the organization. This procedure is not illegal and acts in accordance with law and order but the intention is to hide the actual information and provide the partial information to manipulate the investors (Wangombe, 2013). Thus, organizations start to manipulate and influence stakeholders with the falseness and pretend the financial reports according to societal expectation and environmental prospective to be accepted by the society. The legitimacy gap becomes substantial problem when in the adverse times or randomly media reveals the past records of the organization which suddenly destroys the business entity in sometime and make its survival very diffic ult (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). In addition to this, this situation withdraws the support of public in the organization and scarcity of financial and management resources s being faced by the organization. According to Hayek, (2013), in order to cope-up the situation of legitimacy gap and implementation of effective legitimacy theory, some of the researchers have provided various techniques and strategies that can help an organization in application of social contract within the legitimacy theory. It has been explored by the researchers that the legitimacy concept is related with the favor and majority of any belief, value, norms and behavior which is being accept by the public (Hayek, 2013). In order to apply it effectively, the most important element which should be noted is to communicate with slight alteration, modification to manipulate the stakeholders opinion and sense of decision making. Dowling and Pfeffer (1975) declared three way strategies through which a business entity can implement the legitimacy in its operations. The organization should identify and articulate the goals, methods, results, values and mission compliance with the social expectation, values and beliefs (Ha yek, 2013). Next, the organization can change the methods and strategies of social acceptance to attempt the legitimacy in the operation which is accepted by the majority of the public. The organizational current practices will be articulated as an ideal example of legitimacy and social contract conformity. Lastly, the attempt of legitimacy is done with the help of symbols, institutions and values in the communication practices that provides the strong validation to the organization (Hayek, 2013). Similarly, Dushi and Brdufi, (2015) explored that Lindblom (1994) suggested that there are another four strategies which helps the company in escaping the pressure of social acceptance and legitimacy can be achieved by these ways (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). Along with this, the researcher is not concerned with the falseness and pretending the facts, the accounting and financial reports must be articulated to ensure the acceptance of the society as follows: Relevant public will be informed and educated regarding the organizational practices which are aligned with the societal values and norms and fulfills the social expectations. The disclosure of accounting and financial reports will be presented in such a way that changes the perception of the relevant public about the organizations effort to attain the societal acceptance but not necessarily changes the actual and real behavior, practices and performance of the organization (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). The articulation of facts will be done in such a way that the issues/problems will be covered and ignored in front of public and other irrelevant issues are addressed to divert the decision making and manipulate their opinion. Lastly, by demonstrating the relevant public about the unreasonable demands and expectations which cannot be fulfilled practically and that changes the external aspects of social expectation (Dushi and Brdufi, 2015). The relevant public in the above text is referred to the stakeholders of the company and majority of people who are already in the favor of the company. Relevant public is the most influential people that can be easily manipulated by the company and influences the growth and development of the company very highly. Apart from this, Ali and Rizwan, (2013) states that Deegan and Unerman (2006) also reacted on the legitimacy theory and its application by focusing on the reputation risk management which can be done with the help of active management and reaction of the organization according to the expectation of the society (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). Thus, it can be inferred that the strategies and methods help an organization in incorporating the legitimacy theory plays a vital role in social acceptance. Not only it provides the degree of legitimacy in an organization but also it enables the temporary solutions to the organization to solve the urgent compliance of social contract to minimi ze the damage. The effective legitimacy theory provides the good relation between the stakeholders and management which automatically responsible for fast services and responses to the clients in the market. It ensures the production and performance of the organization with good potential and in positive environment (Ali and Rizwan, 2013). Conclusion From the above discussion it can be implicated that the legitimacy theory and social contract is interrelated and layered aspect of each other. Social contract is the agreement between the society and the organization that provides a beneficial relationship to each other. Society provides the right to the organization to use the natural and community resources to the organization, whereas the organization is obliged in the exchange of using the resources and concerned with the environmental and social challenges. Along with this, every organization has a responsibility to operate complying with society value, norms, behavior and perceptions for a sustainable growth. There are various benefits of integrating the legitimacy in the organization such as competitive advantage, profitability, good relationship establishment between the stakeholders and the organization. On the other hand, the failure in integration of legitimacy theory because of legitimacy gap which is due to time adjustment and changing needs and desires of the society. Furthermore, the legitimacy theory has three stages that are gaining, maintaining and repairing for the application of legitimacy theory. These stages are very helpful in determining the strategies which should be applied by the organization for the effective integration of social contract and expectation. It has also been found that social expectation is an ever changing process and therefore firms need to watch and forecast values, tastes, trends and behavior one step ahead of the society and adjust the strategies with it. The failure of the adjustment can suffer the company from financial losses as well as hamper the existence of the organization. In addition to this, some of the strategies and methods are being given by the researchers to protect from the failure of the society expectations. These strategies ar e not concerned with the falseness and pretending the accounting to manipulate the decision of the stakeholders. References Ali, W., and Rizwan, M. 2013. Factors influencing corporate social and environmental Disclosure (csed) Practices in the Developing Countries: An Institutional Theoretical Perspective. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(3), pp. 590-609. Dushi, D., and Brdufi, N. 2015. Social Contract and the Governments Legitimacy. 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